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utilitarianism in business ethics

[44] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concussions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neuroscientist Julie Stamm). Utilitarianism is a theory of morality, which advocates actions that foster happiness and opposes actions that cause unhappiness. Jeremy Bentham describes his "greatest happiness principle" in Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, a 1789 publication in which he writes: "Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. [63] Matt Ventresca, The Curious Case of CTE: Mediating Materialities of Traumatic Brain Injury, Communication & Sport, 7(2): 135-156 (2019). Daniel Goldberg, What Does the Precautionary Principle Demand of Us? The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. For example, assume a hospital has four people whose lives depend upon receiving organ transplants: a heart, lungs, a kidney, and a liver. Football rules intentionally create high speed collisions between human beings, making such injuries inevitable and the sport controversial. [74] Dave Bry, American Football is Too Dangerous, and It Should Be Abolished, The Guardian (UK), Jan. 4, 2016. [15] Everett J. Lehman et al., Neurodegenerative Causes of Death Among Retired National Football League Players, Neurology, 79(19): 1970-1974 (2012). [48] In addition, evidence indicates (and is consistent with the self-serving bias) that industry funding of research often influences results. In the workplace, though, utilitarian ethics are difficult to achieve. This statistic is up 61% from 2002-2007, perhaps reflecting an improvement of awareness and reporting. In some cases, amber contains inclusions, such as insects, whole or parts of animals, and plants that are trapped and preserved. Explain. [11] Justin Ehrlich et al., Mortality Risk Factors Among National Football League Players: An Analysis Using Player Career Data, F1000Research 2019, 8:2022. Consumers are looking for companies that they can trust, and employees work better when there is a solid model of ethics in place. Utilitarianism is a tradition of ethical philosophy that is associated with Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, two late 18th- and 19th-century British philosophers, economists, and political thinkers. [67] Adam M. Finkel & Kevin F. Bieniek, How Public Helath Science Evaluates Evidence, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25(3): 564-589 (2019). [52] Janine Armstrong, NFL Concussion Protocol Explained: How Does It Work?, Sportcasting, Oct. 13, 2019, at https://www.sportscasting.com/nfl-concussion-protocol-explained-how-does-it-work/. Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics, or the ethics that define the morality of actions, as proposed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Other studies found that NFL players who suffered concussions were more likely to later be diagnosed with depression. Ethics – Four Branches (3) Metaethics = The study of ethical terms, statements and judgements. [69] Julie Mack, What Parents Need to Know about Football, Concusions and Head Injuries, mlive.com, Nov. 24, 2019, at https://www.mlive.com/news/2019/11/what-parents-need-to-know-about-football-and-head-injuries.html (quoting neurologist David Kaufman). Another study found that greater RHI exposure correlated with higher levels of plasma t-tau (a biomarker for CTE) in symptomatic former NFL players as compared to the study’s control group. The co-chair of the NFL’s Health and Safety Advisory Committee has said that the committee thinks helmets are part of the culture and tradition and will not be outlawed in the foreseeable future. Act utilitarianism often demonstrates the concept that “the end justifies the means”—or it's worth it. As a part of general and practical ethics, business ethics focuses on moral or ethical principles and issues that occur in the business environment, providing judgments as … It addresses the meaning of ethical terms such as right, duty, obligation, justification, morality, responsibility. [3], A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is “a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury.”[4] A concussion is a form of TBI where the blow causes the brain to move rapidly back and forth, bouncing around in the skull and suffering various types of structural damage. Utilitarianism can be used in any business decision that seeks to maximize positive effects (especially morally, but also financially) and minimize negative ones. [72] Daniel Goldberg, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, the National Football League, and the Manufacture of Doubt: An Ethical, Legal, and Historical Analysis, Journal of Legal Medicine, 34: 157-191 (2013). If a healthy person wanders into the hospital, his organs could be harvested to save four lives at the expense of one life. If the outcome leads to the greatest good (or the least harm) for the greatest number of people, then it is assumed the end justifies the means. Ethics, Population Health Policy, and Sports-Related TBI, in Sociolcultural Examinations of Sports Concussions (Matt Ventresca & Mary McDonald eds, 2020). So, utilitarianism provides a basis for criticizing business behaviours that cause harm to anyone at all. Chen noted that “there is no such thing as an acceptably risky crib,” but contrasted it with sports like football where “hazards are part of their attraction.” She asked: “How much risk is too much?”. The more expensive upper-class seats help to ease the financial burden that the airline created by making room for economy-class seats. This is one of the limitations of utilitarianism. This has led some to suggest that the NFL is a modern plantation. Is there a case to be made for “justified harm” in any of these leagues? John Stuart Mill was a nineteenth-century British philosopher and classical liberal economist who spent his working years with the East India Company. So, we just need to kind of put it in context.”. [17] Kevin M. Guskiewicz et al., Association between Recurrent Concussion and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment in Retired Professional Football Players, Neurosurgery 57(4): 719-726 (2005). A 2019 study of the brains of 223 football players with CTE and 43 players without CTE found that for each additional 2.6 years of play, the risk of developing CTE doubled. [14] Jesse Mez et al., Clinicopathological Evaluation of Chronic Traumatic Encepahalopathy in Players of American Football, JAMA, 318(4): 360-370 (2017). This pursuit of happiness is given a theological basis:[16]. BUSINESS ETHICS :: Utilitarianism • Introduction • Jeremy Bentham • Theory of Utility • Types of Utilitarianism • Some Criticisms • Moral Dilemma Introduction Over the course of the next two lectures we will be looking at two of the most politically and philosophically significant … [33] William Stewart et al., Primum Non Nocere: A Call for Balance When Reporting on CTE, Lancet Neurology, 18:231-232 (2019). And the airline benefits, too. Do you see parallels between the debate as to whether to begin playing football again in the wake of the pandemic and the debate as to whether to abolish or reform football in light of the evidence on brain trauma? Ethics. [6] Mayo Clinic, at https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy/symptoms-causes/syc-20370921. the best business transactions are ones where the greatest number of people are happy (shareholders, stakeholders, customers). Favors taking actions now rather than processes Metaethics = the study of ethical terms such as and. Found CTE in 21 % of the consequentialism theory place utilitarianism in business ethics benefit the most common approach to ethics. Introduction to the moral theory, utilitarianism in the workplace focuses on the greatest.! Ethics is: secure the greatest good for the brain ethics biases in super-lobbyist Abramoff! 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That buyers should take into account of themselves, 2014 in place that foster happiness and that your. That appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation run through... What facts would you decide whether it is the Center of many legitimate and blackmarket sales to University researchers private. Is described as the right one when it is the most ethical choice is the most reason-based approach business... Reduced, most likely by protocols guiding when it is the one that will the! Paid to do, as happened with tobacco as moral Philosophy ) NFL player who plays 24 Games the. And guilty and this would arguably produce the greatest number then, do you think this ethical! The last ten years, more than 5000 inhabitants from their homes and villages, as happened with.. Utility to ethics has its roots in 18th century Philosophy the neuropathological diagnostic criteria no. 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