1937, Ch. After settlement failed, the case was re-set for trial in December 2006, but the parties settled the case on the first day of trial. Recent Developments In An Employerâs Reimbursement Obligations. CHAPTER 1. Proc. 2802. Whereas actions based on statutory liabilities generally must be commenced within three years, actions for penalties need be commenced within only one year. The third defense can, in some instances, be a complete one but it is also laden with risk. Statutes of limitations are deadlines by which you must file (or otherwise initiate) your legal claim. (2010) 50 Cal.4th 1389.] Copyright Further, AB 970 amends Labor Code section 2802, the statute requiring reimbursement of employee-incurred reasonable business expenses. Damages under section 226 are set at $100 per pay period, up to a maximum of $4,000. The cases cited above make clear that the employee must be reimbursed for some percentage of the costs she incurred to provide her own internet access, computer, smart phone, etc. Cal. However, this general rule has a multitude of nuances once one examines all the different costs that arise in the employment context and the various Labor Code and Wage Order provisions that apply. B247160 (August 12, 2014). Statute Of Limitations On Wage Claims Tolled While Plaintiff Pursues Labor Commissioner Remedies. Labor Code section 2802 gives no direction as to whether costs of employee training are to be borne by the employer or employee, and the Court found no cases addressing training as a cost covered by section 2802. However, Labor Code section 203 provides that an employee may sue for “these penalties at any time before the expiration of the statute of limitations on an action for the wages from which the penalties arise." PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES [920 - 1138.5] ( Part 3 enacted by Stats. Necessary expenditures or losses include all reasonable costs. The second defense is stronger. An … Â© 2020, all rights reserved. Cal. But the employee may enlarge this period to four years by seeking restitution under Californiaâs unfair competition lawânamely return of the operating expenses the employer passed on by failing to provide reimbursement. Proc., § 338, subd. 90. ) Labor Code Section 2802. Code: Article: Section: Code ... Labor Code - LAB. No employer may do any of the following: (a) Require, as a condition of employment, that an employee refrain from disclosing the amount of his or her wages. AB 970 permits the Labor Commissioner to issue citations and impose penalties on employers for violations of section 2802. California law generally holds that an employer may not pass the ordinary costs of doing business on to employees. § 340(a). (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), if the employer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court or the Labor Commissioner that the act or omission giving rise to the action was in good faith and that the employer had reasonable grounds for believing that the act or omission was not a violation of any provision of the Labor Code relating to minimum wage, or an order of the commission, the court or the … Proc. Bain resigned from TRI on February 18, 2005, after TRI allegedly failed to pay him for seven weeks of work and failed to reimburse him for accrued business expenses. If they were, then âliability attachesâ and âit does not matter if the telephone was used for [the employerâs] business 99% or 1% of the time.â Some reimbursement is required and the issue is just how much of the cost the employer should bear. DIVISION 3. In July 2006, the parties agreed to settle shortly before the matter went to trial, but were unable to agree to all of the settlement terms. The California Code of Civil Procedure establishes time limits within which various civil actions must be commenced. and has been part of California’s legal landscape for well over a decade. 2016 California Code Labor Code - LAB DIVISION 3 - EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS CHAPTER 2 - Employer and Employee ARTICLE 2 - Obligations of Employer Section 2802. Thus, if the employer has not communicated this method to employees ahead of time and stated it is intended to satisfy the 2802 obligation, the employer has little chance of proving the defense. DIVISION 2. at 482. Labor Code § 203; Pineda v. Bank of America, N.A. Read the code on FindLaw , . 90. ) Rather, an argument against the âreasonablenessâ of expenses will generally seek to decrease the denominator of the equation not eliminate it altogether. 340(a).] First, were the claimed expenses reasonable and necessary to conducting the employerâs business? 1937, Ch. ARTICLE 2. Bain filed the complaint at issue on appeal on May 7, 2008, within three years of the date that the first Superior Court action became final. But the employee may enlarge this period to four years by seeking restitution under California’s unfair competition law—namely return of the operating expenses the employer passed on by failing to provide reimbursement. If you miss that deadline, you risk losing your right to pursue that particular claim simply because you waited too long to act. The statute of limitations for a PAGA claim is one year and attorneysâ fees are recoverable. Cochran v. Schwanâs Home Service, Inc., Court of Appeal of the State of California, Second Appellate District, Divisions Two, Case No. Thus, employees are entitled to recover reimbursement for four prior years of expenses. Search the Law Search. Second, when did the claims accrue for statute of limitations … Thus, an employee who was regularly required to work remotely on short notice, take calls from a cell phone and respond to emails using a personal smart phone could recover a significant amount of money in a 2802 action seeking reimbursement for a data plan, a minute plan and home internet access. Disclaimer: All materials have been prepared for general information purposes only to permit you to learn more about Sebastian Miller Law, P.C, its services and experience.Â The information presented isÂ notÂ legal advice, is not to be acted on as such, may not be current and is subject to change without notice. © 2020 Seyfarth Shaw LLP. It does not specify what amounts are specifically necessary. Thus, PAGA could increase an employeeâs recover by $1,300 (25% of 5,200). An employer might also assert that it expected employees to return to the office to perform all of their work and, therefore, home office and other remote-work expenses were not ânecessaryâ but rather for the employeeâs convenience. DIVISION 5. An employer might assert it did not expect or require employees to work remotely or respond to emails or calls while they were outside the office. However, the Court held that Bain's claims for penalties under Labor Code Section 1194.2 for TRI's failure to pay him the statutory minimum wage, which is subject to a one-year statute of limitations, was barred since he filed his complaint more than one year after the decision in the first action became final. California law extends the statute of limitations for collecting pay California Labor Law Provides 4 Year Statute of Limitations for Reimbursable Expenses By admin Bonus and Commission It is not unusual for employees to reach into their own pocket to pay expenses that relate to their job. App. § 2802 (a) An employer shall indemnify his or her employee for all necessary expenditures or losses incurred by the employee in direct consequence of the discharge of his or her duties, or of his or her obedience to the directions of the employer, even though unlawful, unless the employee, at the time of obeying the directions, believed them to be unlawful. 1937, Ch. Following a hearing, the Labor Commissioner found for Bain and served its decision and order on the parties on April 21, 2006, awarding Bain $15,000 in wages, interest, and penalties. Cortez v. Purolator Air Filtration Products, 96 Cal.Rptr.2d 518, 528-30 (2000). Answer: The three-year limitations period applies because the employer s liability under Labor Code section 2802 for business expenditures is a liability created by statute. All Rights Reserved. California Labor Code LAB CA LABOR Section 1194.2. Jurisdiction and Duties [6300 - 6332] ( Heading of Chapter 1 amended by Stats. (a) An employer shall indemnify his or her employee for all necessary expenditures or losses incurred by the employee in direct consequence of the discharge of his or her … For example, a fact-finder could conclude that the employer were required to bear half of these costs, which were $200/month, the employee could recover $4,800 over a four-year period and, with interest, that amount could increase by 50% by the time of a judgment. Use a computer to edit a document or similar material. The US Federal Statute of Limitations For Federal Crimes. 993. ) In Gattuso, the California Supreme Court held that an employer can satisfy its 2802 obligation by providing enhanced compensation to employees. (Code Civ. Code: Article: Section: Code ... Labor Code - LAB. On May 7, 2008, more than three years after his claims accrued on February 18, 2005, Bain filed a second action in the Superior Court to enforce the settlement agreement. In relevant part, the court held that Bain's statutory wage claims—which are governed by a three-year limitations period—were not barred because Bain's claim accrued when TRI had agreed to pay wages on January 31, 2007, as part of the parties' December 2006 settlement agreement. Some statutes of limitations are relatively short. [Cal. On March 1, 2005, Bain filed a claim for unpaid wages, waiting time penalties, and expenses with the Labor Commissioner, alleging that he was misclassified as an independent contractor. California Labor Code §2802 Calling All California Employers: You Must Reimburse Employees for Mandatory Use of Their Personal Cell Phones Even if They Have Unlimited Minutes. But, âthe employer must provide some method or formula to identify the amount of the combined employee compensation payment that is intended to provide expense reimbursement.â Id. 1102.5. 13-cv-00563 WHO (N.D. Cal. (a) If an employer willfully fails to pay, without abatement or reduction, in accordance with Sections 201, 201.3, 201.5, 201.9, 202, and 205.5, any wages of an employee who is discharged or who quits, the wages of the employee shall continue as a penalty from the due date thereof at the same rate until paid or until an action therefor is commenced; but the wages shall not continue for more than 30 days. The first Superior Court action (TRI's appeal of the Labor Commissioner's decision) became final on April 9, 2007. Under Cochran, an employer cannot defend a 2802 action related to use of a cell phone on the basis that the employee would have bought a cell phone even if she was not required to use it for work. Sebastian Miller Law, P.C. Political Affiliations [1101 - 1106] ( Chapter 5 enacted by Stats. California Labor Code’s Private Attorneys General Act of 2004 (“PAGA”) permits an “aggrieved employee” to bring a representative action to recover civil penalties for similarly aggrieved employees. TRI agreed to make two payments—one to Bain and one to his attorney—by January 31, 2007. Wage Statement Violations — Claims for penalties under Labor Code section 226 for violations of the itemized wage statement requirements must be filed within one year. Another court stated that all an employee is required to do to establish liability is to demonstrate âexpenses, in any amount and to any degree, are reasonable and necessary to conducting [the employerâs] business.â Lindell v. Synthes USA, Case No. PAGA is codified in California Labor Code §§ 2698 et seq. Wages. Code Civ. Black Friday Deal: 30% off if you purchase by Wednesday 12/2. The Court observed that the equitable tolling rule suspends the running of the limitations period through the date on which the decision in the first action becomes final. 1937, Ch. The costs the employee incurred were not reasonable; The costs the employee incurred were not necessary to the employerâs business; and. Help Sign In Sign Up Sign Up. Proc. To hold otherwise would allow the employer to pass its operating costs onto the employee. … They are also entitled to interest at the legal rate of 10% and attorneysâ fees and costs. 335 through 349.5] while the recovery of a penalty generally has a one-year statute of limitations. 1937, Ch. 90. ) Furthermore, employees may recover significant additional sums under the California Private Attorneys General Act (âPAGAâ) which provides for cumulative civil penalties each time an employer violates a section of the Labor Code. Statute of Limitations: Labor Code 1102.5 – general whistleblower protection: Three (3) years to file lawsuit in California Superior Court 25: Labor Code 98.6 – whistleblower protection for reporting labor law violations: Six (6) months to file complaint with California Labor Commissioner 26, or three (3) years to file lawsuit But the remedy will not be to deny reimbursement, just to decrease the amount to, say, $250. Statutes, codes, and regulations. Instead the employer must pay some reasonable percentage of the employeeâs bill even if the fact that she used it for work did not cause any marginal increase in the amount of the bill. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH [6300 - 6720] ( Heading of Part 1 amended by Stats. at 1576-77. 1973, Ch. Labor Code section 230.5 Labor Code section 230.5 prohibits an employer from retaliating against an employee who is a victim of certain offenses identified in Labor Code section 230.5(a)(2) for taking time off to appear in court at any proceeding. A statutory duty generally has a three-year statute of limitations, [See CCP Sec. 90. ) This will generally present a factual question and is the sort of argument an employer will attempt to offer to defeat class certification. In August, a court wrote that the employerâs duty under 2802 extends to any employee-paid expenses that âwere a foreseeable and clearly anticipated cost of doing business.â Aguilar v. Zep, Inc., Case No. Code Civ. In most instances, this argument will fail since it could effectively require the employee to live in their office. To see the importance of the ruling in Cochran, consider an employee who purchases a smart phone or a computer or pays monthly fees for a minute plan, a data plan, or home internet access. Section 2802 of the California Labor Code requires an employer to indemnify its employees for âall necessary expenditures or losses incurred by that employee in direct consequence of the discharge of his or her duties.â The purpose of the statute is âto prevent employers from passing their operating expenses onto their employees.â Gattuso v. Harte-Hanks Shoppers, Inc., 42 Cal.4th 554, 562 (2007). Do you use your personal cell phone to take work-related calls or send work-related emails?Â Do you sometimes work remotely using your personal computer and/or internet access from your home?Â If your employer knows that you have incurred these costs then California law likely requires that you be reimbursed for them. Obligations of Employer [2800 - 2810.7] ( Article 2 enacted by Stats. A 2802 action is based on an employer’s statutory violation and therefore a three-year statute of limitations applies. Bain resigned from TRI on February 18, 2005, after TRI allegedly failed to pay him for seven weeks of work and failed to reimburse him for accrued business expenses. Code Civ. Accordingly, asserting âenhanced compensationâ as a defense could backfire and result in increased liability and, therefore, many employers will hesitate to pursue it. Employer and Employee [2750 - 2930] ( Chapter 2 enacted by Stats. Even if a plaintiff does not need to seek administrative relief before the Labor Commissioner, the Court of Appeal held that equitable tolling may still apply until the first proceeding is final. Thus, an employer cannot assume that the pendency of administrative proceedings will inure to its benefit in terms of later asserting a statute of limitations defense if the employee chooses to file a civil action for statutory wage violations. 90. ) Code § 2802, see flags on bad law, and search Casetext’s comprehensive legal database . While this list is updated regularly, often-times federal laws and federal sentencing laws get modified, repealed, amended or changed by legislation. EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS [2700 - 3100] ( Division 3 enacted by Stats. California Statute of Limitations for Common Employment Law Claims. Code Civ. 1937, Ch. Answer: The three-year limitations period applies because the employer’s liability under Labor Code section 2802 for business expenditures is “a liability created by statute.” (Code Civ. Bain's claims accrued on February 18, 2005, at the time of his resignation. Both sides appealed. He had two concurrent remedies to recover his unpaid wages: he could seek judicial relief by filing a civil action, or he could seek administrative relief by filing a wage claim with the Labor Commissioner. § 338(a). Recommendations for Employers The expanded Labor Commissioner authority to pursue liens creates an even greater incentive for … On August 28, 2013, in Bain v. Tax Reducers, Inc., the California Court of Appeal held that the statute of limitations for statutory wage claims could be suspended ("equitably tolled") while a plaintiff pursued his administrative claim before the Labor Commissioner. Below is a listing of the federal crimes and the statute of limitations for those crimes. Labor Code Â§ 2699(f)(2). For failure to pay overtime wages based on an employment agreement or personnel policy, the statute of limitations is four years from the date of violation. Pineda appealed. PART 1. Id. Many non-exempt employees are required to be available on short notice to do the following: To satisfy these expectations, an employee needs to own a smart phone and pay for monthly minute and data plans. § Proc. If you have not been reimbursed for expenses your employer required you to incur, please contact Sebastian Miller Law. The employer discharged its 2802 obligations by paying increased salary or incentive compensation. March 4, 2014). 2802. The penalty amounts and procedures applicable to “expenses” are set forth in Labor Code Section 1197.1. Subscribe Now. All State & Fed. at 483. California Labor Code Section 2802 states an employer shall indemnify his/her employee for all necessary expenditures or losses incurred by the employee in the direct consequence of the discharge of his/her duties. Code: Article: ... Labor Code - LAB. Cal. The issue of the statute of limitations with respect to vacation was explored at length in Church v. Jamison, 143 Cal. California Labor Code § 2802. Labor Code Â§ 2802(b)-(c). Code Civ. CA Labor Code § 2802 (2016) What's This? alties under Labor Code Section 203 and included a piggyback claim for violation of the UCL. The Court of Appeal agreed with the trial court and held that Bain's statutory wage claims were not barred by the three-year statute of limitations because they were equitably tolled. California Code of Civil Procedure section 340 creates a one-year statute for claims for penalties. Id. Murphy v. Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc. (2007) 40 Cal. First, which statute of limitations applies to Church’s Labor Code claims for unpaid wages? Bain pursued administrative relief and filed his claim with the Labor Commissioner two weeks after his claims accrued, on March 1, 2005. The trial court awarded Bain just over $25,000. 25% of the PAGA penalty is paid to the employee and 75% to the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency. Lab. Alternatively, the court held that Bain's claims were equitably tolled because he had consistently pursued his remedies in multiple forums to try to resolve the issues, and TRI was not prejudiced by the delay. Â§ 338(a). Labor Code § 300 (Wage Assignments Limited): Wage assignments are invalid unless they meet the requirements (e.g., written statement specifying transaction for which assignment occurs, spousal consent, notarization, maximum 50% of wages assigned and assignment is revocable at any time) of this section. 4th 1094, 1109. Unless another amount is stated, the civil penalty for each violation of the Labor Code is $200 per pay period. So any 2802 claim will now be analyzed under the following simple framework. The California Court of Appeal agreed with the trial court. Sec. But PAGA claims have dramatically increased in … CALIFORNIA CODES ••• CALIFORNIA LABOR CODE. Explore Resources For... Cases & Codes ... A suit may be filed for liquidated damages at any time before the expiration of the statute of limitations on an action for wages from which the liquidated damages arise. The shorter of the two statutes [one year] covering penalties would likely … On May 5, 2006, TRI appealed the Labor Commissioner's decision to the Superior Court. 1937, Ch. 90. ) He also sued for breach of contract based on the settlement, for money had and received, conversion of bond money, and to recover wages based on Labor Code violations. Indeed, the leading recent case on 2802 confirmed that an employee must be reimbursed even if the costs at issue were fixed and the employee would have incurred them irrespective of the needs of her employer. This statute applies to employers with 50 or more employees. CHAPTER 2. But it is now clear that 2802 applies to a much broader universe of items. (a) An employer shall … This claim is not credible since it is unlikely to appear in any written policy, given that few employees would agree to employment on those terms. Timing of California Department of Fair Employment and Housing Act Complaint(s) A complaint generally must be filed within one year from the date upon which the alleged unlawful practice occurred. Code Section. [Cal. Read Section 2802, Cal. If the employer violates section 226, then the employee may assert a separate claim under PAGA as well. Proc. 993. ) 4th 1568 (2006). Proc., § 338, subd. There, the court concluded that the statute of limitations on a claim for vacation pay under Labor Code section 227.3 accrues on the date that the employee is terminated. Code Section Code Section. Joe Liburt, Renee Phillips and Allison Riechert Giese Posted on September 5, 2014. Â§ 340(a). (a).) Answer: The two-year statute of limitations applicable to oral contracts. Thus, the court concluded that Bain's statutory wage claims were timely. Cal. SAFETY IN EMPLOYMENT [6300 - 9104] ( Division 5 enacted by Stats. A 2802 action is based on an employerâs statutory violation and therefore a three-year statute of limitations applies. The employee also must own a computer and pay for internet access so she can manipulate word documents, excel files and so forth. Plaintiff Harold Bain worked for Defendant Tax Reducers, Inc. ("TRI") as an independent contractor accountant. While there is no time limit for filing complaints with the Labor Commissioner under Labor Code section 98, the Commissioner previously has adopted the same statute of limitations applicable to civil suits. In addition, making the argument that enhanced pay was provided exposes the employer to additional damages of $100 per pay period under Labor Code Â§ 226. The amount of the reimbursement will vary and requires a fact finder to allocate some percentage of the cost to the employerâs business and some percentage to the employeeâs personal use. Code Section. Employees have two years to file claims based on oral … California has two statutes, Labor Code sections 232 and 232.5, that protect the rights of employees to disclose information about their compensation or working conditions.The first, Labor Code section 232, was enacted in 1984, provides:. August 27, 2014). PART 3. CHAPTER 5. EMPLOYMENT REGULATION AND SUPERVISION [200 - 2699.5] ( Division 2 enacted by Stats. For Code Section 226(e) recordkeeping violations, overtime violations or unauthorized paycheck deductions, employees have three years to file claims from the date the employer violated the Code. (a) An … The trial court threw his claims out, determining that they were barred by the statute of limitations and that the UCL didn’t apply to a claim for waiting time penalties. Employers have three basic defenses to an action under Section 2802: The first defense will almost never be a complete one. California Labor Code § 2802: Employers’ Duty to Reimburse California Labor Code section 2802 requires employers to reimburse employees, “for all necessary expenditures or losses incurred by the employee” while completing work duties. 90. ) 11-cv-02053-LJO-BAM (E.D. 1973, Ch. JX. For example, an employer might argue that spending $1,000 on a cell phone was not reasonable. The most common examples are mileage, travel, and dining expenses. Previous litigation applied Section 2802 to require that employers provide reimbursements for the cost of uniforms, travel expenses and legal fees for employees who were sued as a result of their employment. Plaintiff Harold Bain worked for Defendant Tax Reducers, Inc. ("TRI") as an independent contractor accountant. And the statute of limitations … Sec holds that an employer ’ legal... % off if you purchase by Wednesday 12/2 6720 ] ( Chapter 2 enacted Stats. ( 25 % of 5,200 ) Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc. ( `` TRI '' ) as independent... Section: Code... Labor Code Section 1197.1 defense can, in some instances, this argument will fail it! Incentive compensation Phillips and Allison Riechert Giese Posted on September 5, 2014 31, 2007 modified, repealed amended... Up to a much broader universe of items search Casetext ’ s legal landscape for well over decade... Length in Church v. Jamison, 143 Cal business ; and, be a one... Article 2 enacted by Stats the denominator of the federal crimes employee may assert a separate claim PAGA! Costs of doing business on to employees Procedure Section 340 creates a one-year for. Whereas actions based on an employer can satisfy its 2802 obligation by providing enhanced compensation to employees 226 then. Which statute of limitations … Sec federal laws and federal sentencing laws get modified, repealed, or... 5 enacted by Stats that particular claim simply because you waited too long to act recoverable... An employer can satisfy its 2802 obligation by providing enhanced compensation to employees 2699.5 ] ( Part enacted. 3100 ] ( Division 3 enacted by Stats and is the sort of argument an employer may not the. Limits within which various Civil actions must be commenced 2 ) Code Section 1197.1 Cole,... Section 203 and included a piggyback claim for violation of the federal crimes actions based an! Ab 970 permits the Labor Commissioner Remedies Commissioner Remedies Appeal agreed with trial. Productions, Inc. ( 2007 ) 40 Cal employer to pass its operating costs onto employee! Are entitled to recover reimbursement for four prior years of expenses they are also entitled to recover reimbursement four..., repealed, amended or changed by legislation two weeks after his claims on! Any 2802 claim will now be analyzed under the following simple framework ’. Amended or changed by legislation ( 2 ) simple framework on statutory liabilities generally be! Section 203 and included a piggyback claim for violation of the statute of limitations for federal crimes $ on! Of Part 1 amended by Stats Commissioner to issue citations and impose penalties employers! That spending $ 1,000 on a cell phone was not reasonable ; the costs the employee incurred not... And has been Part of California ’ s statutory violation and therefore a three-year statute of limitations class certification s... Section: Code... Labor Code - LAB 6300 - 9104 ] ( Division enacted., excel files and so forth recover reimbursement for four prior years of.! See CCP Sec Code claims for unpaid wages limitations are deadlines by which you must file ( or otherwise )... ( or otherwise initiate ) your legal claim otherwise initiate ) your legal claim - 6720 (. By $ 1,300 ( 25 % of 5,200 ) Code Â§ 2802 ( b ) - ( c.. The UCL ) ( 2 ) and procedures applicable to oral contracts first Superior Court business. Applies to employers with 50 or more employees § 2802 ( 2016 ) what this... Which various Civil actions must be commenced within only one year and attorneysâ and! Workforce Development Agency:... Labor Code Section 1197.1 200 - 2699.5 ] ( Division enacted!, in some instances, be a complete one but it is also laden with.... Procedure establishes time limits within which various Civil actions must be commenced ) - ( c ) hold otherwise allow... Political Affiliations [ 1101 - 1106 ] ( Chapter 5 enacted by Stats period, up a. But the remedy will not be to deny reimbursement, just to decrease the denominator of the statute of applies... The denominator of the PAGA penalty is paid to the Superior Court action ( TRI 's Appeal of the crimes. Regularly, often-times federal laws and federal sentencing laws get modified,,! Violation of the Labor Commissioner two weeks after his claims accrued, March... To, say, $ 250 awarded Bain just over $ 25,000 be. EmployerâS statutory violation and therefore a three-year statute of limitations for federal crimes that! 1, 2005, at the time of his resignation and HEALTH [ 6300 - 6720 (. Miller law '' ) as an independent contractor accountant file claims based on an employer satisfy! Kenneth Cole Productions, Inc. ( 2007 ) 40 Cal and IMMUNITIES [ 920 1138.5... The ordinary costs of doing business on to employees employers with 50 or more employees the! In most instances, this argument will fail since it could effectively require employee! ; the costs the employee also must own a computer and pay internet. Did the claims accrue for statute of limitations … Sec in Labor Code §§ et!
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